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酒精温度计  

2016-04-11 01:58:43|  分类: 校园·教育 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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酒精温度计是用的液体乙醇ethanol、甲苯toluene、煤油kerosene或乙酸异戊酯Isoamyl acetate,  替代玻璃管內的水銀 mercury

並添加了红色或蓝色染料。

如果温度计玻璃管破了,其內含的化學物會比較沒有毒性,蒸發也快。

玻璃管內的毛细管密封,低端擴大球狀,液体上方的空间內含有氮和該液体的蒸汽的混合氣體。

随着温度升降, 毛细管內的液体体积相應胀縮,毛细管的半月板the meniscus = interface between the liquid 上下移動;這半月板的位置標示出其温度。


The alcohol thermometer is an alternative to the mercury-in-glass thermometer and has similar functions. Unlike the mercury-in-glass thermometer, the contents of an alcohol thermometer are less toxic and will evaporate away fairly quickly. An organic liquid is contained in a glass bulb which is connected to a capillary of the same glass and the end is sealed with an expansion bulb. The space above the liquid is a mixture of nitrogen and the vapor of the liquid. For the working temperature range, the meniscus or interface between the liquid is within the capillary. With increasing temperature, the volume of liquid expands and the meniscus moves up the capillary. The position of the meniscus shows the temperature against an inscribed scale.

The liquid used can be pure ethanol, toluene, kerosene or Isoamyl acetate, depending on manufacturer and working temperature range. Since these are transparent, the liquid is made more visible by the addition of a red or blue dye. One half of the glass containing the capillary is usually enamelled white or yellow to give a background for reading the scale.


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